Nature and Culture International’s Protected Areas 

Protected Areas by Type

  • Private Reserves
  • Communal Reserves
  • Government Reserves
  • In Process

Types of Reserves

PRIVATE RESERVES
In some instances, land purchases are used as an important conservation tool. Purchasing land is a delicate process that must ensure a fair approach to property owners and a welcome outcome for all. Through the acquisition of key parcels, NCI has expanded existing national parks, created new natural reserves, and helped preserve vital watersheds.

COMMUNITY RESERVES
When a parcel of land is owned by a community, members of that community agree to set aside a portion of their land in perpetuity. When this area is officially recognized as a Communal Reserve, the land remains under their ownership, and NCI helps institute management and sustainability activities in the area.  This form of conservation has proven extremely successful in creating lasting commitments and environmental protection at the grassroots level.

GOVERNMENT RESERVES
A Government Reserve begins as public land owned by the government, which is then designated a conservation area through political and legal proceedings, an NCI specialty. Similar to the National Park system in the United States, a specific level of recognition and protection is established by either the local, regional, or national government.

The Process

The process of creating a Reserve can be divided into three overarching categories. To declare an area, there must be a screening, declaration, and management process.

SCREENING PROCESS

1.  SIZE OF POTENTIAL SITE
When first considering a potential project, we think about the potential size of an area. Whenever possible, we look to protect areas of large contiguous ecosystems.

2. DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICS
Next, we use in-country biologists to assess species diversity and endemism – the number of plants and animals that are limited only to a particular region. Endemic species are the most vulnerable to extinction do to habitat loss.

3. IMMINENT THREATS
We then make a trend analysis that examines the imminent dangers moving toward the region. These might be logging, slash-and-burn agriculture, biofuel plantations, overgrazing and clearing, oil extraction or mining -especially, these days, gold mining.

4. COST
Taking in to account the cost for a successful project, this factors into our decision making and is an important part of our model.

5. STAYING POWER
The overarching goal is to create a legacy for the people and other species involved. We look for projects that will be embraced locally to provide a legacy for future generations.

6. LOCAL TALENT
To succeed, we need local conservationists with political acumen. We also look for potential partners in the area that would be able to join us in declaring an area. Screening a site on the ground is vital to this process to ensure feasibility and success of a project.

DECLARATION PROCESS

1. CREATE A SCOPE OF WORK
First, a formal agreement must be signed between NCI and any partners, whether it be a National government or community member. From there, together we formalize a goal, roles and responsibilities of each party, and agree upon a scope of work.

2. LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE LAND
We research and collect information of all of the land ownership of the area, demographic information, and begin to propose future management goals and activities. We then begin to draft ordinances that will be taken into the legislative stage of the declaration process.

3. GIS ANALYSIS (MAPS, DELIMITATION)
The determination of boundaries of the proposed area.

4. EDUCATION AND PUBLIC CONSULTING
We provide education and outreach to elected officials of an area and the public. We then take feedback and update the terms of the ordinance.

5. TECHNICAL PROPOSAL FOR DECLARATION OF AREA
The legislative process begins by submitting the proposed ordinance.

6. SUBMISSION FOR DECLARATION TO PERTINENT AUTHORITY

7. COMMUNICATION AND CAMPAIGN

8. CREATE APPROPRIATE MANAGEMENT PLAN

MANAGEMENT PROCESS

1. DEFINE MANAGEMENT ROLES
Dependent on the type of Reserve, management will be established accordingly.

2. CREATE AN INVESTMENT PLAN
An operations plan that establishes management activities and goals is formalized. The activities will vary from site to site.

3. COMMITTEE ORGANIZATION AND TRAINING

4. POTENTIAL
       a) SUSTAINABLE USE: LAND AND RESOURCES
       b) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS